|Title||Clinical characteristics of high myopia in female carriers of pathogenic mutations: a case series and review of the literature.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2022|
|Authors||Tran, Matthew, Kolesnikova Masha, Kim Angela H., Kowal Tia, Ning Ke, Mahajan Vinit B., Tsang Stephen H., and Sun Yang|
|Date Published||2022 Aug 26|
BACKGROUND: RPGR mutations are the most common cause of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP). High myopia has been described as a very frequent feature among affected female carriers of XLRP. However, the clinical phenotype of female patients presenting with X-linked RPGR-related high myopia has not been well described.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective case series of four female patients with RPGR mutations and a diagnosis of high myopia, who presented to two academic eye centers. Clinical data, including age, family history, visual acuity, refractive error, dilated fundus exam, fundus photography, optical coherence tomography, electroretinography, and results of genetic testing, were collected.
RESULTS: Three RPGR variants identified in the present study have not been previously associated with myopia in female carriers. One variant (c.2405_2406delAG, p.Glu802Glyfs *32) has been previously associated with a myopic phenotype in a female patient. Patients became symptomatic between the first and sixth decades of life. Myopia-associated tilted optic discs and posterior staphyloma were present in all patients. Two patients presented with intraretinal migration of the retinal pigment epithelium.
CONCLUSION: RPGR-related high myopia has been associated with mutations in exons 1-14 and ORF15 in heterozygous females. There is a wide range of visual function among carriers. Although the exact mechanism of RPGR-related high myopia is still unclear, continued molecular diagnosis and description of phenotypes remain a crucial step in understanding the impact of RPGR mutations on visual function in female XLRP carriers.
|Alternate Journal||Ophthalmic Genet|
|Grant List||P30 EY026877 / EY / NEI NIH HHS / United States|